The chief leafy vegetables used for sarma are vine leaves, cabbage, kale, chard and beet greens. In addition, they may be made from the leaves of various broad leaved herbs in the spring, or even mulberry leaves.
In some regions, sarma are also referred to as köfte. For example yoğurtlu köfte belongs to the sarma category, as it is wrapped in parboiled leaves before it is cooked. On the other hand, red lentil köfte and kısır, a salad made from vegetables and fine bulgur, are often wrapped in vine leaves or lettuce after they are prepared.
Sarma and dolma are generally served with yogurt, ayran and hoşaf. In this way the meal contains representatives of all the main food groups.
The fillings for sarma and dolma eaten cold generally contain a relatively large of finely chopped onion, followed by rice, pine nuts sautéed in olive oil or vegetable oil, currants and other flavorings. They may be made of vine leaves, cabbage, peppers, eggplant, tomatoes, artichokes, celeriac or leeks. Stuffed mussels and fish are also made.
The cold (zeytinyağlı) dolma and sarma are usually served as a side dish rather than as a main course. They are also much served at picnics, cocktail and tea parties. As they do not have the protein and B vitamins supplied in the hot dolma and sarma, they are not as nutritious.
|Table 1- Köfte according to type, ingredients, way served and region.|
|Name||Main Ingredients||How Served||Main Region|
Sarmsaklı köfte(with garlic)
|Fine bulgur, flour, garlic, parsley, vegetable oil||Appetizer, with tea or with ayran||İçel|
|Cracked wheat, fine bulgur, eggplant, green pepper, tomatoes, onion, butter||Common in summer, served with yogurt||Malatya|
|Sıkma köfte||Cracked wheat, onion, green pepper, butter, tomatoes||All seasons, served with yogurt||Malatya|
|Fırın yapması||Fine bulgur, ground meat, onion, tomato and pepper paste, vegetable oil, mint, cumin||Baked or fried, served with ayran||Gaziantep|
|Fine bulgur, ground meat, onion, walnuts, oil, spices, pepper paste||3 types: deep fried, boiled or baked||Southeast Anaotolia, Malatya|
|Sini köfte (tray köfte)||Fine bulgur, ground meat, potatoes, walnuts, veg. oil, black pepper||Very popular, served with salad or yogurt||Gaziantep,Urfa|
|Malhıtalı köfte||Fine bultur, red lentils, onions, scallions, parsley, pepper paste, veg. oil (margarine), black and red pepper||At lunch, with salad, ayran or pickles||Gaziantep|
|Ekşili köfte||Green lentils, spinach, cracked wheat, onion, margarine, sour plum molasses||Served with onion or scallions||Malatya|
|Ekşili köfte (sour köfte)||Chickpeas, meat, fine bulgur, ground meat, rice, pepper and tomato paste, margarine, red and black pepper, green grape molasses||As it is labor intensive, usually made for special days and guests||Southeast Anatolia, İçel. Also called “Analı Kızlı”|
|Batırık||Southeast Anatolia, İçel. Also called “Analı Kızlı”||Served either as köfte or watered down as soup.||Ermenek, Mut, Silifke, Karaman|
|Cimdik Köftesi||Cracked wheat, fine bulgur, spinach, garlic, yogurt, margarine||Takes its name from the way it’s made, pinching between the fingers||Malatya|
|Göce Köftesi||Fine bulgur, flour, yogurt, mint, tomato paste, garlic, red pepper||As a main dish at lunch||Afyon|
|Yoğurtlu ufak Köfte||Chickpeas, small pieces of meat, fine bulgur||In Ramadan it is made with rice instead of bulgur. Served as a main dish.||Gaziantep, K. Maraş|
|Kadınbudu Köfte||Ground meat, rice, egg, onion, clarified butter, red pepper, cinnamon||Main dish||Generally made in cities.|
|İzmir Köfte||Ground meat, bread crumbs, egg, onion, parsley, potatoes, tomatoes, oil||Main dish||Generally made in cities.|
|Şiş Köfte||Ground meat, bread crumbs, eggs, grated onion, parsley, flour, black pepper||Generally in cities, for picnics. Plain or on pide, with yogurt.||Generally made in cities|
|Kuru Köfte||Same as şiş köfte, but fried or baked||Served as a main dish, with fried potatoes.||Generally made in cities|
|Cızbız Köfte||Ground meat, grated onion, black pepper, clarified butter||Also known by other names such as İnegöl köftesi||Generally made in cities|
|Hasan Paşa Köftesi||Ground meat, bread crumbs, egg, butter, black pepper, onions, potatoes, milk, tomato paste||Made in cup shape and filled with potato puree and baked. Main dish.||Generally made for guests.|
|Terbiyeli Köfte||Ground meat, rice, parsley, onion, flour, black pepper, lemon, eggs||Served as a soup, main dish||Southern and eastern regions.|
|Rulo Köfte||Ground meat, bread crumbs, egg, parsley, black pepper, tomato paste, carrots||Köfte mixture is made into a roll stuffed with carrots and topped with boiled egg, baked.||Generally made for guests|
|Yoğurtlu Köfte||Vine or other leaves, cracked wheat, onion, margarine, red pepper, flour, yogurt, sour plum molasses||Main dish||Malatya|
|Table 2- Hot Sarma ve Dolma|
|Stuffed pepper (eggplant)||Stuffing peppers, ground meat, rice (bulgur), tomatoes (or paste), parsley, spices, in winter, dry vegetables are used||Main dish or second course after soup||Turkey-wide|
|Stuffed celeriac||Celeriac, ground meat, rice, parsley, dill, spices, onion, butter (margarine)||Main dish or second course after soup||Aegean region|
|Mixed dolma||Dolma filling, vegetables such as eggplant, pepper, zucchini, tomatoes, onion||Main dish or second course after soup||
|Stuffed leeks||Leeks ground meat, rice, parsley, dill, butter (margarine)||Main dish or second course after soup||