133 MAD 3043, p. 59; MAD 274, p. 40; MAD 7502, p. 39. For information on acquisition of raw material for the making of boza, or the purchase of boza itself, see: Barkan, "İstanbul Saraylarına...", p. 233, 234, 279. Evliya Çelebi writes that cinnamon, cloves, ginger and nutmeg were used in the making of boza. (Seyahatnâme, nşr. Orhan Şaik Gökyay, I, İstanbul 1996, p. 313). Âli claims that nutmeg was used (Şeker, Mevâ‘ıdü'n-Nefâis, p. 366). Yerasimos says that after the reign of Mehmet the Conqueror, boza does not appear on the palace books (Sultan Sofraları, p. 27); this is erroneous.
134 For information on the introduction of coffee to Ottomanl lands and its spread, see: C. Van Arendok, "Kahve", İA, VI, İstanbul 1993, p. 95-100; Ralph p. Hattox, Kahve ve Kahvehaneler, transl. by Nurettin Elhüseyni, İstanbul 1996; Suraiya Faroqhi, "Coffee and Spices: Official Ottoman Reactions to Venetian-Egyptian Trade in the Later Sixteenth Century", WZKM, LXXVI (1986), p. 87-93.
135 MAD 652, p. 34; MAD 5095, p. 35.
136 MAD 3443,s. 237.
137 In a section of a 1668 kitchen register is a memorandum showing that Harem-i Hümâyûn'a kıyyesi 110 akçeden 1458 kıyye (1870 kg.) kahve alınması için hazineden 160.380 akçe çıkarıldığını (D. BŞM 10535, p. 5). We see that coffee gradually takes a larger part of the kitchen budget, because approximately ten years earlier, payment was made for 8806 akçelik 620 kıyye (795 kg) of coffee (D. BŞM 10527, p. 21).
138 MAD 5095, p. 36; D. BŞM 10523, p. 18; Miller, The Sublime Port, p. 117. According to a rations book from the year 1704 (D. BŞM 10822), the following people received rations of coffee: The sultan (Ahmed III), Kethüdâ Kadın, the Dâye Kadın, Prince İbrahim, Prince Fuad (?), Prince Osman, Prince Hasan, Princess Ayişe, Princess Emine, Princess Safiye, the head wife of the sultan, the head laundryman, the treasurer, the secretary of the sultan’s expenses, the caliphs, the Hanım Sultan, Şerîf Ali, Sheikh Abdülvâhid, the master of the palace, the head treasurer, the receiver of correspondence to the mother of the Sultan, the librarian Abdullah Çelebi, and three unnamed sultan’s wives and ambassadors.
* In the 15th century, 1 kile equalled 18.875 kıyye (24,213 kg.); and in the 16th and 17th centuries was calculated at 20 kıyye (25,656 kg). Actually 1 kile is known to have been 20 kıyye. However the number 18.875 for one Istanbul kile is based on a register from the palace kitchen from the 15th century (Ömer Lütfi Barkan, "İstanbul Saraylarına Ait Muhasebe Defterleri", Belgeler, IX/13, s. 102).
* 400 dirhems equals 1 kıyye, or 1.2828 kilograms.
** Given to the kebab chef of the Has Kitchen.
1 For information on the structure of the Emânet and the makeup of its personnel, see Arif Bilgin, Osmanlı Sarayı Mutfağı (1453–1650), Istanbul 2004, pp 10-75.
2 Several kitchen and eating utensils used by the Turks had the same names in Ancient China as well. See Bahaeedin Öğel, Türk Kültür Tarhinin Giriş, IV, Ankara, 1985, p. 203, 205-208, 213-216, 242, 251, 292, 351, 381, 387, 400. For information on the mantı, an important item in Turkish cuisine, being of Chinese origin, see Bert Fragner, “Kafkaslardan Dünyanın Damına: Bir Mutfak Serüveni,” Ortadoğu Mutfak Kültürleri, Istanbu. 200, p. 60.
3 This is clearly indicated by Arabic or Persian names for foods prepared in the Ottoman kitchen. For two works the names of foods and their reciprocal influence, see: Stefanos Yerasimis, Sultan Sofraları- 15 ve 16 Yüzyılda Osmanlı Saray Mutfağı, Istanbul 2002; and Sami Zubaida (ed.), Ortadoğu Mutfak Kültürleri, Istanbul 2000. One noteworthy point in the exchange of foods is the way a dish taken from another cuisine may be imbued with the characteristics of the cuisine into which it entered. For example, the ingredients of many dishes taken from the Arabs, after they entered Ottoman cuisine, were changed to suit the tastes of the Ottoman people. For three dishes whose ingredients changed, herîse, zirvâ and mutancana, see: Yerasimos, a. g. e., p. 72, 86 and 94.
4 After the conquest of Egypt for example, the Ottoman palace gained the opportunity to begin using many products it had never tasted before, especially spices. For a list of spices which entered the Ottoman palace after the conquest of Egypt, see: Bilgin, Osmanlı Sarayının İsaşesi, pp 312-323.
5 For information on the beginning of rice culture in Filibe (Plovdiv, Bulgria), after its conquest, see: Halil İnalcık, “Rice Cultivation and the Çeltükçi-Re‘âyâ System in the Ottoman Empire,” Turcica, XIV (1982), p. 70.
6 See: Sami Zubaida, Ortadoğu Yemek Kültürlerinin Ulusal, Yerel ve Küresel Boyutları",Ortadoğu Mutfak Kültürleri, İstanbul 2000ö pp 32-45 (And especially for the adoption of Ottoman eating habits among rich Egyptian urban residents, p. 33); Fragner, “Kafkaslardan Dünyanın Damına…,” pp 49-62.
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